Knowledge base


  • Active movement

    Voluntary movement produced by the patient’s own muscles.
  • Afferent stimulation

    Stimulation of sensory receptors which causes nerve impulses to travel along the afferent pathways of sensory nerves towards the central nervous system (contrary to efferent nerves which conduct nerve impulses from the central nervous system towards motor neurons).


  • Balneotherapy

    A branch of physiotherapy applying water of various temperatures, often mixed with ingredients such as peat, CO2 or saline, to reach therapeutic effect.
  • Biofeedback

    Also biological feedback. Patients are provided with information about their physiological state and its changes. Thus each patient may actively observe the progress in rehabilitation and treatment, which results in higher motivation and translates into better rehabilitation and treatment effects.
  • Biphasic defibrillator

    A device used to the heart defibrillation that is reestablishing the normal cardiac rhythm by delivering a therapeutic dose of electrical energy to the heart. The direct current shock given by a biphasic defibrillator has a biphasic wave form. The initial direction of shock is reversed by changing the polarity of the electrodes in the latter part of the shock being delivered. Usually the initial voltage applied is higher than the reversed polarity shock (initially the energy of 150 - 200J is delivered, and then 150 – 360J).
  • Bobath concept

    An approach in neurological rehabilitation applied in children with cerebral palsy and adults after stroke. The main principle of Bobath concept is continuous work with the patient by a multidisciplinary team of specialists, primarily involving physiotherapists, but also physicians, the patient's family, nurses, speech and language therapists, and ergotherapists. The rehabilitation is continued also at the patient's home.


  • Carbonic acid bath

    A part of hydrotherapy. In a carbonic acid bath, mineralized water is mixed with carbonic acid, which results in elevated CO2 in the water. Appropriately high level of CO2 has therapeutic and relaxing properties.
  • Cardiological rehabilitation

    Rehabilitation procedures aimed at prevention of cardiac disorders and improving patients’ life quality through treatment and limiting the disease progression.
  • Cardioversion

    A medical procedure using electricity by which an abnormal heart rate in tachycardia or arrhythmia is converted to a normal rhythm. Synchronized electrical cardioversion uses a therapeutic dose of electric current to the heart at a specific moment in the cardiac cycle.
  • Combined therapy

    A therapy applying more than one form of medical procedures to produce a desired therapeutic effect, e.g. the combination of ultrasound wave and impulse electrotherapy stimulation simultaneously applied, chiefly for pain management.
  • Compression therapy

    The concept of compression therapy lies on a simple and efficient mechanical principle of applying external pressure by means of designed for this therapy bandaging or stockings or some special devices.
  • Continuous passive motion (CPM)

    CPM devices are used in passive rehabilitation to mobilize joints, e.g. following surgical procedures. The rehabilitation with CPM may start shortly after operation or trauma and it provides passive motion in a specific plane of natural movement. At the same time the joint overloading is prevented.
  • Crosstrainer

    A stationary exercise machine used to simulate stair climbing, walking, or running without causing excessive pressure to the joints. The training intensity can be adjusted to the patient’s condition.
  • Cryo chamber

    A room where Whole Body Cryotherapy (WBC) is administered. The chamber is cooled to a temperature that ranges between -160 °C and –100 °C.
  • Cryotherapy

    A medical therapy with local or general use of temperatures below 0°C. Locally applied cryotherapy is used to treat skin or mucous membranes lesions, etc. Whole Body Cryotherapy is applied in cryo chambers cooled to a temperature that ranges between -160°C and –100°C, for up to 3 min.


  • Diadynamic current

    It is a low frequency monophasic pulsed current. The carrier frequency is a sine wave, operating at 50Hz which is then rectified (full wave or half wave). The current relieves pain, improves blood circulation and tissue nutrition.
  • Dry hydromassage

    A type of massage in which pressurized water is directed at flexible material on which a patient is lying.


  • ECG

    Electrocardiography is the recording of the electrical activity of the cardiac impulse-conducting system as detected by electrodes properly arranged on the body. ECG is used to examine the heart’s function and diagnose disorders such as myocardial infarction. Electrocardiogram is a graphic tracing of the variations in electrical potential caused by the excitation of the heart muscle.
  • EEG

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is examining brain electrical activity with multiple electrodes properly arranged along the scalp. EEG measures voltage fluctuations which result from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain and may be used to diagnose epilepsy and sleep disorders among other diseases. EEG is also used to examine feedback.
  • Electrostimulation

    Stimulation of nerves or muscles using electric impulses of required frequency, amplitude and time. TENS, EMS, and interferential stimulation are 3 main forms of electrostimulation. It is used to reduce both acute and chronic pain of different origins, in physical therapy in the prevention of disuse muscle atrophy, as adjunctive therapy in urinary incontinence, in treatment of circulatory disturbances.
  • Electrotherapy

    Medical procedures using direct current (galvanism) or alternating current to produce therapeutic effect. Iontophoresis (transcutaneous administration of a medication or bioactive agent as ions which under the influence of direct current migrate inside the body), galvanism and electrostimulation (elicitation of muscle contraction using electric impulses or nerves stimulation) are 3 main branches of electrotherapy.
  • EMG

    Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating the electrical activity produced by skeleton muscles and nerves. The information about muscles and nerves activity is collected with surface electrodes (surface EMG) or needle electrodes/needles containing two fine-wires electrodes (intramuscular EMG). Electromyography signals may be used to determine whether muscle disturbances are of muscular or nervous origin.
  • Ergometer

    An instrument for measuring the amount of work done by human muscles. Bike and rowing ergometers are most frequently used.


  • Functional rehabilitation

    The purpose of this type of rehabilitation is to return the patient to everyday activities, e.g. sitting, eating unaided, as well as work-related activities, e.g. returning appropriate fingers efficiency in a person using a computer at work.
  • Functional training

    The concept of functional training refers to exercises which involve training the body for the activities performed in daily life. As the effort put in the training translates directly to improved quality of life, patients find functional training highly motivating and engaging, which accelerates the process of rehabilitation.


  • Gait reeducation

    Learning how to walk again by patients who lost this ability due to disorders, such as cerebral stroke, or as a result of injuries or traumas, e.g. traffic accidents.


  • Haemodialysis

    Extracorporeal removal of waste products and free water from the blood when the kidneys are in a state of renal failure. Haemodialysis is one of renal replacement therapies.
  • Heat therapy

    A branch of thermotherapy applying heat, which may be transferred via radiation, conduction, and convection, to produce therapeutic effect. It results in blood vessels dilation and increased blood flow. Other benefits include relieving muscle spasms and reducing pain. Therefore heat therapy is used in disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, paresis, contractures, neuralgia, and neuritis.
  • High level laser therapy (HLLT)

    This type of laser therapy is used in arthritis, muscular contracture or post-traumatic oedema. HLLT results in photochemical effect, photomechanical effect, and photothermal effect which decrease inflammation, oedema and pain, increase tissues oxygenation and supply of nutrients to tissues.
  • HILT therapy

    High Intensity Laser Therapy applies laser which reaches very high peak powers with pulsed source. It is used in inflammations, oedema, to relieve pain, and to stimulate regeneration. The therapeutic effect is produced due to photochemical, photomechanical, and photothermal effects.
  • Holter monitor

    A portable device / examination for continuous monitoring of various electrical activity of the cardiovascular system for at least 24 hours. The Holter monitor records electrical signals from the heart via a series of electrodes attached to the chest. During the examination the patient makes notes of his physical activity. When the recording of ECG is finished the physician performs the signal analysis and compares the recording with the patient’s notes. The extended recording period is useful for observing occasional cardiac abnormalities, e.g. arrhythmias which would be difficult to identify in a shorter period of time.
  • Hydro massage

    A type of massage based on the therapeutic use of water pressure – massage techniques are applied to the human body through the water. It is used mainly to increase blood circulation and relax muscles.
  • Hydrotherapy

    A part of physiotherapy using water of different temperatures, state of aggregation, and pressure to produce therapeutic effect.


  • Interference currents

    Interference currents therapy activates muscles contraction, dilates blood vessels, and increases tissue metabolism. Its main advantage is deep tissue penetration.
  • Iontophoresis

    Transcutaneous administration of a medication or bioactive agent as ions which under the influence of direct current migrate inside the body. The major advantage of iontophoresis is the immediate therapeutic action (the alimentary system is omitted) and precision (the drug is administered exactly to the place where it is expected to produce some therapeutic effect).
  • IR radiation

    Infrared (IR) radiation with wavelengths extending from 780nm to 1mm is detectable and used in many measurement methods, including pulse oximetry.


  • Kinesitherapy

    A form of physiotherapy. It involves the treatment of disease by passive and active muscular movements and may be divided into local and general kinesitherapy. Local kinesitherapy involves activities which relate directly to the affected organ while general kinesitherapy concerns the whole body. Morning gymnastics is an example of general kinesitherapy.


  • Laser therapy

    A branch of physiotherapy which uses various types of laser to perform therapeutic procedures which include surgical procedures such as ophthalmological surgery or removing / destroying abnormal tissue (e.g. tumors). Laser is used also in conservative therapy for laser biostimulation (low level laser therapy).
  • Light Therapy

    Also referred to as phototherapy – treatment with light of different wavelengths (infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light), both natural and artificial. Infrared light is emitted by the Sollux lamp and is used in physiotherapy to heat tissues. Visible light of various wavelengths is used in treatment of depression, in dermatology, and to reduce bilirubin in jaundice of the newborn. UV light is mainly used in photochemical therapy.
  • Lymphatic drainage

    A therapeutic procedure which is intended to improve lymph circulation, performed by a therapist with use of some specialized equipment. It is a kind of gentle massage with slow and rhythmic circular movements. Also used as a cosmetic procedure.


  • Magnetic therapy

    A branch of physiotherapy in which sinusoidal, triangle, and rectangular magnetic fields are applied. Used in bone fractures and delayed wound healing due to its regeneration stimulating properties.
  • Magnetostimulation

    A branch of physiotherapy in which periodic magnetic fields are applied to produce therapeutic effects. Magnetostimulation is used most frequently in post-traumatic rehabilitation, burns, in neurology to decrease pain.
  • Manual therapy

    A clinical approach utilizing skilled, specific hands-on techniques used by physical therapists to diagnose and treat soft tissues and joint structures. The benefits include increased range of motion and improvement of mobility and function in areas that were restricted, reduced pain, and improved contractile and non-contractile tissue repair.
  • Massage therapy

    A branch of physiotherapy which involves working and acting on the body with various types of touch pressure – structured, unstructured, stationary, or moving – tension, motion, or vibration. In general, therapists press, rub, and otherwise manipulate the muscles. Massage is used to relieve muscle tension and for general physical and mental relaxation.
  • McKenzie method

    An approach encompassing a system of precise assessment (evaluation), diagnosis and treatment for the spine pain.
  • Microwave diathermy

    A therapeutic procedure using high-frequency electromagnetic field (0.3 – 3.0 GHz) – microwaves, wavelength about 1cm. The indications include: chronic arthritis, neuralgia, degenerative spine, periarticular inflammation.
  • MLS laser therapy

    Multiwave Locked System laser therapy synchronizes continuous and pulsed emissions of high energy laser providing well aimed procedures that generate anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects as well as reduction of oedema. The 905nm wavelength pulsated emission provides mainly analgesic effect, while the 808nm continuous emission counteracts inflammation and reduces oedema.
  • Monophasic defibrillator

    A device used to the heart defibrillation, or reestablishing the normal cardiac rhythm by delivering a therapeutic dose of electrical energy to the heart. The direct current shock given by a monophasic defibrillator has a monophasic wave form and the voltage applied remains constant delivering the same amount of energy (360J).
  • Movement video analysis

    Systems used for assessment of rehabilitation progress or diagnosis of locomotor system disorders, based on analysis of monitored motion and comparing it to normal physiologic motion.


  • Neurac Method

    Neurac method encompasses exercises in closed kinetic chains. The exercises allow to minimize shearing forces which may lead to damage to passive stabilizing elements (bones and tendons). Moreover, the exercises activate many motor units and therefore their influence on the muscular system is more general.
  • Neurorehabilitation

    A process whereby patients who suffer from mental and/or physical impairment due to neurological disorders resulting from stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease or other damage to the nervous system regain their former abilities or, if full recovery is not possible, achieve their optimum physical, mental, social and vocational capacity.


  • Optometric table

    Optometric tables are used for sight-testing. The letters or pictures placed on the tables are of gradually decreasing sizes. Checking the size of the smallest letter or picture recognized by the patient, the ophthalmologist or optician determines the vision defect.
  • Orthosis

    An orthopedic appliance or apparatus used to immobilize joints (often used instead of plaster). Active orthoses reduce spasticity (increased muscle tone, or stiffness). Orthoses are used in bone fractures, ligament ruptures, dislocations, following stroke, often as immobilization following a surgical procedure, and in some disorders, e.g. carpal tunnel syndrome.
  • Osteopathy

    A method of treatment based on the premise of holism, i.e. the body is an integrated unit or balanced musculoskeletal system and optimal physiologic function depends on the unity of the body, psyche, and mind, which are interrelated both in the state of health and disease.


  • Paraffin therapy

    A physiotherapeutic method. Paraffin treatment is a form of deep heat therapy which involves the application of paraffin warm compresses to the patient's hands, feet and sore joints and muscles. When cooling down paraffin volume decreases, which results in increased pressure on the tissues. Paraffin therapy provides pain relief, tissue relaxation, and blood vessels dilation which promotes toxins removal.
  • Passive exercises

    Repetitive movement of a part of a body as a result of an externally applied force the source of which is a therapist’s effort or special equipment.
  • Passive movement

    Movement of a joint without participation or effort on the part of the patient.
  • Pearl bath hydromassage

    A balneological procedure. It is a type of hydromassage in a jetted bathtub filled with mineral water which is pumped into the bathtub with compressed air via a system of jets. Pearl bath is recommended in somatic disorders such as blood circulation and blood supply disorders, joint diseases, dermatological diseases, varicose veins, but also in stress, neurosis, and insomnia.
  • Physical therapy

    A branch of physiotherapy using physical phenomena such as electric current, magnetic field, ultrasounds, heat, and light to produce therapeutic effect.
  • Physiotherapy

    A set of therapeutic methods making use of human body responsiveness to different stimuli. Physiotherapy is closely related to rehabilitation and includes: balneotherapy, climate therapy, hydrotherapy, kinesitherapy, physical therapy, etc.
  • Proprioception

    It is the sense providing information on the relative positions of neighbouring parts of the body, e.g. positions of extremities. Thus, even with closed eyes we know the position of our body and location of our extremities.
  • Pulse oximeter

    A device that measures saturation of blood (mainly oxygen saturation). This noninvasive method allows continuous monitoring of blood saturation during surgical procedures and in intensive care units, which is of crucial importance.


  • Redcord systems

    Systems used to perform exercises with full or partial body suspension. Doing the exercises patients do not have to overcome gravity.
  • Rehabilitation rotor

    A rehabilitation device used to perform rotational movements (similar to cycling).


  • Saline bath

    A form of hydrotherapy. It contains a 1-6 % solution of common salt and/or rock salt (NaCl). The salt concentrations differ depending on the indications. A saline bath improves skin’s moisture and blood flow to the skin, facilitates toxins’ removal, reduces sweating and promotes relaxation.
  • Sauna

    A room designed and used as a place to experience dry or wet heat sessions. Benefits include improved blood circulation and relaxation. Afterwards it is common to take a cold shower.
  • Scottish shower

    A therapeutic shower applied as a form of hydrotherapy. Patients are sprayed with water at appropriate pressure and temperature. Indications include: circulatory disturbances, neurosis, chronic disorders of respiratory tract, rheumatoid arthritis. Also used as a cosmetic procedure.
  • Sensory-motor integration

    Sensory-motor integration is the coupling of senses, e.g. the sense of touch, vestibular sense (allows an organism to sense body movement, direction, and acceleration, and to attain and maintain postural equilibrium and balance.) or proprioception (provides the information on the relative positions of the parts of the body). Close cooperation of the senses with the nervous system results in specific reactions, e.g. moving the head results in eyes movement, etc.
  • Shock wave therapy

    In this form of therapy, acoustic waves with an extremely high energy peak interact with the tissues after coupling the therapy head to the patient's body. It is used e.g. in arthritis, muscle strains, and arthralgia of various origins.
  • Short wave diathermy

    A therapeutic procedure using strong electric or magnetic field to heat tissues with resultant muscle relaxation and pain relief. The indications include: degenerative spine, frostbite, muscle pain, neuralgia, neuritis, and post-traumatic condition.
  • Spasticity

    A form of muscular hypertonicity with continuous increased resistance to passive movement, or stretching.
  • Supination

    Rotating an extremity „towards the outside of the body”, e.g. rotating the right arm clockwise.


  • TENS therapy

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is used for pain management. Short electric impulses are delivered with surface electrodes attached to the skin.
  • Tilting a patient to erect position

    A component of rehabilitation, which allows to achieve tilting and erect position of bedridden patients with use of a tilting table. As some organs and systems of human body are not adapted to long-term lying position, this part of rehabilitation is of critical importance to prevent many serious disorders.
  • Traction

    Traction is defined as the act of drawing or pulling or as the application of a pulling force. This form of therapy is often applied in order to pull away articular surfaces in the spinal column to relieve pressure, e.g. in the course of discopathy. Traction is performed manually by physiotherapists or it involves some special equipment.


  • UGUL

    The UGUL Cage, also known as the Universal Exercise Unit, allows patients to engage in customized exercises with partial or full body suspension – performing the exercises patients do not have to overcome gravity, which greatly facilitates the therapy. The Cage is of metal structure with a system of pulleys, and it is expandable with additional elements in any direction. Redcord systems are an alternative to UGUL.
  • Ultrasonography

    It is a diagnostics procedure in which an ultrasound-based imaging technique is used for visualizing internal body structures.
  • Ultrasound therapy

    This form of therapy refers to procedures using ultrasound, or sound with a frequency greater than the upper limit of the human hearing range, for therapeutic benefits. The energy of the ultrasonic pressure wave is absorbed by the tissue beneath the skin surface, which results in the increased collagen and elastin synthesis, and blood vessels dilation among other benefits.


  • Vibration massage

    A part of classic massage. Vibration massage is administered by quickly tapping with the fingertips or alternating the fingers in a rhythmic manner or by a mechanical device. The benefits include decrease in excitability of nociceptors, favourable changes in the nervous system, reduction of oedema.
  • Vojta method

    A rehabilitation method applied mainly to children with disorders of central neural coordination. It activates genetically coded motor patterns.


  • Whirlpool massage

    Massage administered by immersing the body or a part of the body in a tank of warm water agitated by a jet of equally warm water and air. Whirling massage relieves pain, tissue tension, improves blood circulation, and decreases muscles tension.

Updated: 22-11-2023, 11:40